Sunday, August 23, 2020

International Marketing Essay Example

Global Marketing Essay Part 4 1. Culture-The human made piece of human condition the entirety of information, convictions, expressions, ethics, laws, and customs and some other propensity received by a general public. Social Institutions-This Includes all factors that affect the manner in which individuals identify with one another model schools, media, and governments. Culture Values-The arrangement of accepts held by a people in a given culture. Custom An example of conduct acted in a set way. Semantic separation The proportion of contrasts between dialects. Feel The creation and valuation for magnificence. Social Sensitivity-An attention to a country’s subtleties so the way of life can be seen impartially. Social Borrowing-This is the point at which a culture takes a thought from another culture to take care of issues. Social Congruence-A showcasing technique where items are advertised in a manner like the standards of that culture. Arranged change-A showcasing procedure where the organization goes out to change the components which are opposing against the item. 2. What job does an advertiser play as a change operator? The utilization of another item causes social change so the advertiser turns into a change operator. 3. Talk about the three social change systems a remote advertiser can seek after. 4. Culture is unavoidable in all promoting exercises. Talk about. Culture has huge effect on everyone. It even influences the manner in which we rest and eat. An advertiser must get this and construct his item dependent on the way of life cosmetics 5. What is the significance of social compassion to remote advertisers? How would they gain social compassion? We will compose a custom exposition test on International Marketing explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on International Marketing explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on International Marketing explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Social compassion is imperative to advertisers so as to comprehend the market and ready to foresee the eventual fate of the market. The most ideal approach to secure this sympathy is returning to the beginnings. 6. For what reason should an outsider advertiser be worried about the investigation of culture? An outsider advertiser ought to be concerned as a result of the benefits to be made. 7. What is the famous meaning of culture? Where does culture originate from? The most well known definition for social is normal accepts customs, and so forth between gatherings of individuals. The four fundamental driver of a culture the geology, history, innovation and political economy, and social establishments. 8. Individuals from a general public acquire from different nations to tackle issues that they face in like manner. I don't get this' meaning? What is the critical to showcasing? 9. For the unpracticed advertiser, the comparable yet various parts of culture make a hallucination of likeness that generally doesn’t exist. Examine and give models. An unpracticed may expect that since two societies share a similar language so they have comparative societies. This is clearly not the case like we see by Americans and British despite the fact that we share a similar language we are still extremely far separated. 10. Layout the components of culture as observed by an anthropologist. By what method can an advertiser utilize this plan? The components of a social are values, ceremonies, images, convictions, and point of view. Understanding these can carry incredible advantage to an advertiser. 11. Social establishments influence culture and promoting in an assortment of ways. Talk about give models. One of the social organizations is family. In numerous societies it is profoundly attached to have young men. In those societies there is a higher kid proportion. This clearly gives the market an alternate dynamic. 12. Markets are the consequence of the three path cooperation of a marketer’s exertion, monetary conditions, and all other component of a culture. 13. What are a portion of the issues brought about by language in outside advertising? On the off chance that an advertiser doesn’t have the correct relational abilities this will be a significant issue for the advertiser

Saturday, August 22, 2020

MERS-CoV Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

MERS-CoV - Research Paper Example Having been first announced in 2012 in Saudi Arabia, MERS has spread in different nations through the Saudi Arabia guests who travel in different nations (Butler, 2012). Significant manifestations of MERS-CoV incorporate fever, brevity of breath and hacking. As per a report by World Health Organization, shows that despite the fact that transmission of MERS-CoV starting with one individual then onto the next is one of the courses through which the ailment is transmitted, it isn't the significant way (McKay, 2014). The infections as indicated by National Institute of Health situated in Maryland demonstrate that the infections can transform once they are breathed in. The infections are for the most part transmitted through the air when a contaminated individual comes near others (Bermingham et al, 2012). Tainted camels have likewise significant route through which the infection can be transmitted to the individuals. Momattin, H et al. (2013). Remedial Options for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) †potential exercises from an orderly survey of SARS-CoV treatment. Global Journal of Infectious Diseases 17

Friday, August 21, 2020

Global diversity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Worldwide decent variety - Essay Example Decent variety is getting mainstream around the globe and as it is progressively picking up acknowledgment as it impacts the results of associations for instance the worldwide information creation just as expanded worker commitment. Moreover, it is significant for people and representatives to how to separate decent variety socially, strategically and legitimately. Additionally, workers ought to have the option to oversee multicultural groups, create social skills, and guarantee smooth activities across worldwide representatives. Representatives ought to be associated with worldwide advancement that empowers culturally diverse mindfulness just as preparing. The benefits of decent variety incorporate, individuals from various foundations meeting up to bring their extraordinary social encounters and offer in giving more extensive points of view to a superior extreme goals. Likewise, there is expanded innovativeness and an improvement in the generally speaking in the presentation of a d iffering workforce. It likewise realizes more extensive inclusion where representatives from various foundations that furnish associations with a more extensive inclusion in the worldwide commercial center. Populating the workforce helps in viable communication with clients from various societies. Nonetheless, there is a burden in correspondence where representatives that originate from various societies and communicate in various dialects may think that its a test to take part in correspondence. What's more, it is costly and tedious to prepare on building connections and illuminating clashes with associates from various societies.

Battle of Amiens in World War I

Skirmish of Amiens in World War I The Battle of Amiens happened during World War I (1914-1918). The British hostile started on August 8, 1918, and the primary stage viably finished on August 11. Partners Marshal Ferdinand FochField Marshal Douglas HaigLieutenant General Sir Henry RawlinsonLieutenant General Sir John MonashLieutenant General Richard Butler25 divisions1,900 aircraft532 tanks Germans Generalquartiermeister Erich LudendorffGeneral Georg von der Marwitz29 divisions365 airplane Foundation With the thrashing of the 1918 German Spring Offensives, the Allies quickly moved to counterattack. The first of these was propelled in late July when French Marshal Ferdinand Foch opened the Second Battle of the Marne. An unequivocal triumph, Allied soldiers prevailing with regards to constraining the Germans back to their unique lines. As the battling at the Marne wound down around August 6, British soldiers were planning for a subsequent ambush close Amiens. Initially brought about by the authority of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig, the assault was proposed to open rail lines close to the city. Seeing a chance to proceed with the achievement accomplished at the Marne, Foch demanded that the French First Army, just toward the south of the BEF, be remembered for the arrangement. This was at first opposed by Haig as the British Fourth Army had just built up its ambush plans. Driven by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Rawlinson, the Fourth Army planned to avoid the run of the mill primer mounted guns siege for an unexpected assault drove by the enormous scope utilization of tanks. As the French needed huge quantities of tanks, an assault would be important to relax the German resistances on their front. The Allied Plans Meeting to examine the assault, British and French officers had the option to strike a trade off. The First Army would participate in the attack, be that as it may, its development would start forty-five minutes after the British. This would permit the Fourth Army to accomplish shock yet at the same time license the French to shell German situations before assaulting. Before the assault, the Fourth Armys front comprised of the British III Corps (Lt. Gen. Richard Butler) north of the Somme, with the Australian (Lt. Gen. Sir John Monash) and Canadian Corps (Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Currie) toward the south of the waterway. In the days earlier the assault, extraordinary endeavors were made to guarantee mystery. These included dispatching two regiments and a radio unit from the Canadian Corps to Ypres with an end goal to persuade the Germans that the whole corps was being moved to that zone. Also, British trust in the strategies to be utilized was high as they had been effectively tried in a few limited ambushes. At 4:20 AM on August 8, British mounted guns started shooting at explicit German targets and furthermore gave a sneaking flood before the development. Pushing Ahead As the British started pushing ahead, the French initiated their starter siege. Striking General Georg von der Marwitzs Second Army, the British accomplished total shock. South of the Somme, the Australians and Canadians were bolstered by eight forces of the Royal Tank Corps and caught their first goals by 7:10 AM. Toward the north, the III Corps involved their first goal at 7:30 AM in the wake of progressing 4,000 yards. Opening a vast fifteen-mile long gap in the German lines, British powers had the option to shield the foe from mobilizing and squeezed the development. By 11:00 AM, the Australians and Canadians had pushed ahead three miles. With the adversary falling back, British mounted force pushed ahead to misuse the penetrate. The development north of the stream was more slow as the III Corps was bolstered by less tanks and experienced substantial opposition along a lush edge close Chipilly. The French likewise had achievement and pushed ahead roughly five miles before dusk. All things considered, the Allied development on August 8 was seven miles, with the Canadians infiltrating eight. Throughout the following two days, the Allied development proceeded, however at a more slow rate. Fallout By August 11, the Germans had come back to their unique, pre-Spring Offensives lines. Named the Blackest Day of the German Army by Generalquartiermeister Erich Ludendorff, August 8 saw an arrival to versatile fighting just as the primary enormous acquiescences of German soldiers. By the finish of the main stage on August 11, Allied misfortunes numbered 22,200 slaughtered injured and missing. German misfortunes were a dumbfounding 74,000 murdered, injured, and caught. Trying to proceed with the development, Haig propelled a second attack on August 21, with the objective of taking Bapaume. Squeezing the adversary, the British got through southeast of Arras on September 2, constraining the Germans to withdraw to the Hindenburg Line. The British accomplishment at Amiens and Bapaume drove Foch to design the Meuse-Argonne Offensive which finished the war later that fall. Chosen Sources History of War: Battle of AmiensFirst World War: Battle of AmiensBritish Army in World War I: Battle of Amiens

Monday, July 6, 2020

An Admission Testing Timeline for the Class of 2017

Many students in the class of 2017 are eagerly (or not-so-eagerly) awaiting the results of the PSAT they took in October. Even students at schools where the PSAT isn’t administered in 10th grade are still well aware of the looming gauntlet of standardized tests that students must run as they approach the college admission process. Anxiety around college admission is nearly unavoidable, and for many students it is the testing PSAT, SAT, ACT, Subject Tests, AP’s that causes the most stress. While some degree of angst over testing is probably inevitable, at Compass we believe that the recipe for relief is clear: careful advance planning, thoughtful and well-balanced preparation, and a determination to maintain a healthy perspective. Yes, test scores matter. But not this much: The stress relief starts with advance planning. For a student in the class of 2017, which tests should be taken and when? While individual circumstances should be accounted for and personalized advice from counselors should trump generalized advice, the following guidelines are a starting point from which to plot a customized path. To give you a basic summary of our recommendations for a testing timeline, Ive included the table below: Testing Timeline for the Class of 2017 Winter/Spring of 10th Grade: Too Early for Test Prep Resist the temptation to worry too much too early about tests. Instead, enjoy being a sophomore. Focus on your schoolwork. Engage intensely in non-academic passions. Cultivate friendships and your family relationships in a few years you’ll probably be in new surroundings and living on your own. What not to do now? Test prep. Seriously. I own a test prep company, but I’m also a dad, I care about kids (sophomores are still kids), and I couldn’t be more sincere. It’s too early and it’s not necessary. You’ll be taking the SAT, not defending a dissertation. Preparation might entail several months of work (at most), but not several years. In fact, a good way to gauge the ethics of a test prep company or tutor is to call them in the middle of tenth grade and see if they’ll happily get you started right away on test prep. You’d have to twist Compass’ arm almost to the breaking point to get us to agree to actually begin tutoring you this early. We’re more than willing to consult with you and/or your parents, evaluate your 10th grade PSAT scores, possibly administer a practice test, and lay out a plan to commence many months from now, but that’s it. (All of the aforementioned is complimentary and offered without obligation, by the way.) May/June of 10th Grade: Consider Subject Tests SAT Subject Tests (formerly known as SAT II’s and even longer ago known as Achievement Tests) are relevant at a tiny fraction of the almost 3000 four-year institutions in the U.S. Approximately 40 colleges require or recommend Subject Tests, while about 60 will consider them if submitted. Many of these colleges, however, are extremely popular. As a general rule, if you believe you might apply to a very selective school, it is best to keep your options open and plan to take Subject Tests. They are designed to align with specific academic classes, so the ideal window to take a particular test is when you are completing the corresponding class in school. Most Subject Tests are taken at the end of 11th grade when students are in more advanced classes and are a year more mature academically and otherwise. However, 10th graders in an honors or AP class should consider taking the relevant Subject Test. A common pairing would be Pre-Calc Honors → Math 2. History and Science cl asses also may align. The Literature and Language tests are generally better deferred until after additional semesters of cumulative coursework. The takeaway is to consider scheduling practice tests in March or April for any Subject Tests you are considering taking officially in May or June. The practice tests are only one hour each, will help you determine whether or not you should take the actual test, and will reveal any gaps that you need to fill. Take the practice test at least one month before the official test date, so that you have time react to the results. Test prep for Subject Tests should be minimal and of a â€Å"polishing† nature; if not, then taking that test is probably ill-advised in the first place. Summer Before 11th Grade: Take Practice Tests to Finalize Plan, Possibly Begin Prep There is no black-and-white answer as to whether students should start test prep the summer before 11th grade. The trend is certainly in that direction, but for some students it’s simply premature. If you don’t feel ready motivationally or otherwise then holding off until later in 11th grade is fine. For most students, summer prep at this stage is foundational, meaning that we will not be on an unrealistic quest to have you defy the odds with a â€Å"one-and-done† performance in fall of 11th grade. That feat is rarely accomplished even by the National Merit Scholars on the PSAT, who are by definition in the 99th percentile of testers. So it’s really about giving you a big head start on the kind of work that will eventually lead to your peak performance later in spring of 11th grade or even fall of 12th grade, and lightening the load of what test prep might entail within the school year. These subtleties and individual goals are discussed thoroughly befor e we recommend a customized program for you. Any summer prep you choose to do should be scheduled in such a way as to not preclude other activities and travel. A more universally appropriate testing event for rising 11th graders is diagnostic testing designed to finalize a testing plan for the coming school year. Practice test scores enable us to guide you towards a decision between the SAT and ACT, establish a baseline for prep, select specific test dates, and define appropriate parameters for the scope of your prep. For example, we will be the first to tell you if your scores in a particular area are high enough that little to no prep will be necessary. Conversely, if your scores are lopsided and a weakness in a particular area will require more time to address, we’ll explain that too. Bottom line is that by the summer of 11th grade (or fall at the latest), you should have a well-defined plan for what you will do in the 6-12 months ahead to ensure you reach your potential on these tests. That plan should be appropriately aggressive but should also strive for efficiency and a holistic balance of priorities. My favorite way of descri bing the ideal mindset is â€Å"I’ll give these tests their due, but not one second more.† October of 11th Grade: Take the â€Å"New† PSAT Unless you’ve been covering your ears every time anything related to standardized testing comes up, you’ve probably heard that the College Board is pushing through an extensive revamping of the SAT, led by their new President who is an architect of the Common Core and who is determined to return the SAT to its former glory (as of 2013, the ACT is more commonly taken nationally than the SAT). The class of 2017 has the rather dubious â€Å"honor† of being the guinea pigs for the new SAT, which officially debuts with the Oct 2015 PSAT. The reality is that most students will opt out of being guinea pigs and choose in spring 2016 to take the ACT instead, thereby avoiding the new SAT’s drawbacks in its debut year, which include a thin and compromised library of prep materials and delayed reporting of scores (all of which you can read more about here). However, even if you strongly suspect that you’ll take the safe route offered by the ACT, we still recomm end that you take the 11th grade PSAT when offered by your school in Oct 2015. Reasons for doing so include a) you get the valuable experience of taking a standardized admissions test under real conditions, b) you’ll get a score that will be comparable to your 10th grade PSAT and a useful guidance tool for your counselors and other experts (us), and c) hey, you never know, maybe the new P/SAT’s idiosyncrasies will suit you so well that you’ll choose it over the ACT despite the compromises. Unlikely, but possible. Fall/Winter of 11th Grade: Finalize SAT vs ACT Decision and Begin Prep An unfortunate strategic error that we hear about all too commonly every year involves 11th graders starting prep for one test only to realize well into the process that prep for the other test would have been a better choice. At Compass we insist on pre-program diagnostic tests to minimize the risk of this happening to our students. A less common but much worse situation is when students fall victim to an unscrupulous test prep provider who intentionally steers them into concurrent or consecutive prep for both tests a totally unnecessary overkill approach that is self-serving for the test prep company and typically harmful or at best inefficient for the student. We’re also not fans of students taking their first SAT or ACT entirely cold as a â€Å"dry run.† The result is almost always a score that is useful as a baseline only and not a score that you will want to report to colleges. A practice test taken with Compass is a) professionally administered just like the real thing, b) accurately and promptly scored, c) without cost or obligation, d) all of the above. (We hate to just give away the answer, but it’s D.) As early as summer before 11th grade and no later than winter of 11th grade, take the necessary practice tests to accurately select the test that you will target officially. With this task completed, you will be ready to benefit fully from the deliberative, tried-and-true approach we profess. January of 11th Grade: Possibly Consider Sitting for Final Administration of â€Å"Old† SAT Students in the class of 2017 are in the rather quirky position of technically having more options (ACT, old SAT, new SAT) than the students a year before or after them while pragmatically having fewer options that are uncompromised. The new SAT is problematic for the reasons discussed above. The old SAT would be a perfectly good option as it has been for years, except for the fact that it will be offered for the last time in January 2016. We cannot in good faith recommend to most students an option that would unduly accelerate their timeline. The vast majority of students need at least the full sweep of 11th grade and quite often the fall of 12th grade before they are ready and able to peak on a college admission test. What would typify the student in the small minority for whom the old SAT would be worth a shot? That would be the rare student who did extremely well (National Merit level) on the 10th grade PSAT, confirms those results with an SAT practice test in summer 2015, prefer s the format and content of the old SAT, and is available for potentially rigorous prep in fall of 11th grade. Students who choose the ACT will have nearly an additional full year of testing opportunities to peak. February and/or April of 11th Grade: Take the ACT The ACT will be the test of choice for most students in the class of 2017, and February or April of 11th grade (2016) will be the ideal window for their first sitting. February works well for students who got an early start on prep and/or are at the higher end of the score range, while April is ideal for students who will benefit from that many more months of academic maturation before their first official test. Both the February and April test dates leave the final 4-6 weeks of the school year open for students to focus more on Subject Tests, AP exams, and their academic classes. There is also an ACT offered the second Saturday in June for students who wish to retest. May and/or June of 11th Grade: Take the Subject Tests (If Needed) As discussed above in the context of the 10th grade year-end period, SAT Subject Tests are required, expected, or at least considered by approximately 100 colleges. It is critical to schedule Subject Tests when you are completing the corresponding class in school, so the end of the 11th grade year is the most popular and optimal time. We recommend scheduling practice tests in March or April for any Subject Tests you are considering taking officially in May or June. Considerable thought can go into which Subject Tests you select, when you take them (the timing of AP exams plays a role), whether you take them just once or utilize both the May and June dates, how many you take on any given date, and so on. The directors at Compass are experts at helping you think this through, and we aim to have our advice complement and expand upon the guidance you will likely receive from your counselors and teachers at school. Fall of 12th Grade: Retake Any Tests As Necessary ACT offers test dates in September, October, and December. The College Board fall dates are the first Saturdays in October, November, and December. Reporting of scores from fall test dates must be handled promptly and carefully by students applying to a college with early decision or early action, but otherwise the fall test dates are excellent opportunities for seniors to take the test a final time. While it is no longer common for students to wait until the summer before 12th grade to begin test prep, we still find many students who benefit from minimizing testing and test prep in 11th grade so as to focus more exclusively on schoolwork. As has been a theme in this post, these very individual decisions are well-informed by practice tests and in-depth consultations with a Compass expert.

Tuesday, June 30, 2020

Contemporary trends in corporate finance - Free Essay Example

Brief: 194364 Title: Contemporary trends in corporate finance This report looks at the contemporary trends in corporate finance in the UK. The major trends and their implications are analysed below. Major trends in corporate finance Growth in private equity Private equity has grown rapidly over the last decade. Private equity has grown both in number of deals it is involved in and also the size of companies being taken private. In UK, a consortium led by CVC is bidding for J Sainsbury and another consortium led by KKR is bidding for Boots (Larsen, 2007 I). Both of the above two deals are valued at around  £10 billion. The growth in private equity has been fuelled by the interest of new investors in private equity and availability of cheap debt. Pension funds and wealthy investors are now putting more of their investments in private equity resulting in huge amount of investment funds with private equity. Due to high amount of cash at their disposal, it makes more economical sense for private equity firms to invest in larger deals rather than chasing a large number of smaller deals. UK has also been subject to higher buyout activity from non-UK buyout firms. Acquisitions in the UK by foreign companies in the first three quarters of 2005 exceeded the values for such deals for 2003 and 2004 (Dolbeck, 2005). Both CVC and KKR are US-based firms keenly pursuing buyouts in UK. . Big high street banks have also set up their own private equity funds. Lloyds TSBà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s LDC invests in UK mid-market with up to  £100 million in private equity[1]. Investment and participation by investment banks Previously investment banks participation in private equity was limited to advising private equity and/or companies and raising capital for private equity companies. But in the last few years, investment banks have also started investing alongside private equity firms. Not only that investment banks are also raising their own funds to invest on their own or alongside with private equity firms. Merrill Lynch is even investing from its own funds[2]. Investment banks participation stems mainly because of the two reasons. First, they generate lucrative fees on the overall deal. Second, investment banks earn good returns on their money invested. Emergence of hedge funds in diverse investment instruments Hedge funds are investing in securities of longer term lock-in periods. Hedge funds active in the leveraged buyout market are providing subordinate debt and payment-in-kind securities. A consortium of hedge funds helped finance Malcolm Glazers pound  £790 million takeover of Manchester United FC by taking payment-in-kind securities (The Lawyer, 2006). This has brought hedge funds in direct competition to established companies funding such investments. Hedge funds have also started taking active roles in changing companies in distress or special situations. Availability of cheap debt Growth in private equity has been fuelled by availability of cheap debt. Increase in corporate earnings over the last few years and reduced interest rates allowed banks to increase their lending for acquisitions. Stable economic environment in UK has also increased bankà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s appetite for risk. Private equity investors are often borrrowing six to seven times the equity they are putting in the deal[3]. Emergence of activist investors Activist investors à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" individual investors and / or hedge funds à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" are taking more active role in forcing companies to restructure and increase shareholders value. Cadbury Schweppes recently agreed to demerge its businesses and list them separately to increase shareholder value. The company had previously decided not to take this route but the turnaround came swiftly after appearance of the US activist Nelson Peltz as one of the main shareholders (Jackson, 2007). Hedge funds are now coming out in open and asking companies to take drastic actions to increase their returns. Implications Corporate debt to equity ratio Companies with good and predictable cash flows are facing more prospects of being acquired by private equity firms. Mature businesses with significant proportion of their assets in tangible and physical assets offer good securities against which buyout firms can raise cheap loans. To reduce their likelihood of being taken over by buyout firms, companies are raising more debts and returning cash to shareholders. It is do or die scenario in some cases as companies reluctant to take on more leverage could find themselves on the receiving end of a takeover bid (Larsen, 2007 II). This has led to increase in debt to equity ratios of companies. Stagecoach plc is returning  £700 million to its shareholders. Because of disposal of some of its businesses, the company had a net fund position of  £140 million in October 06 (Stagecoach, 2007). Stagecoach will have to take debt to finance the return of capital to the shareholders. According to Modigliani and Millerà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s proposition II, the expected return on equity of a levered firm increases in proportion to the debt to equity ratio (Brealey Myers). Higher debt should then raise shareholders return but it also increases the chances of bankruptcy. Some of the corporate decisions, made under the influence of active investors, may appear to be good for shareholders in short-term. Return of cash or separating businesses may increase shareholders value but would expose companies to risk of high interest rate or may not leave them with sufficient cash to pursue growth opportunities in future. Increase in interest rates Higher buyout activity and return of capital to shareholders have been funded by availability of cheap debt. But with the continuing increase in house prices and moderate to high inflation, Bank of England has been raising interest rates. Due to higher financial leverage, companies with higher debt will have to incur more interest charges if interest rates increase. Additionally consumers, who have taken more mortgages on their homes, will find that they have lower income at their disposal after paying higher mortgages. Lower income and higher interest charges will likely lead to reduction in companies earning and increase their chances of bankruptcy. Dividend With a view to avoid being acquired by buyout firms, companies are increasing dividend to better utilise cash sitting in the business or its ability to raise cheaper funds. This is also done under pressure from hedge funds who are pressurising companies to increase their share prices by efficient use of funding and return of capital. Last few years have seen growth in private equity deals, both in number of deals and size of individual deals. This has been fuelled by the increase in funds available with buyout firms and also by the availability of more and cheap debt. Also activist investors are pushing firms to increase shareholder value. Companies are now taking steps to return capital to shareholders to avoid being taken private. All of the above has resulted in higher amount of debt for companies with stable cash flows and exposing them to bankruptcy risks in case interest rates rise further and consumers demand slows down. BIBLIOGRAPHY REFRENCES Brealey, R.A. S.C. Myers. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Principles of corporate financeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , Sixth edition, Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, pg. 481 Dolbeck, A. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Mergers and acquisitions around the worldà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , Weekly Corporate Growth Report, Santa Barbara, 19 December 2005, Iss. 1370, Pg. 1 Jackson, T. (2007). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“The public company is battered but not brokenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , Financial Times, 19 March 2007 Larsen, P.T. (2007, I). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Private equity bids keep on growingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , Financial Times, 28 March 2007 Larsen, P.T. (2007, II). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Takeovers reach a record highà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , Financial Times, 25 January 2007 The Lawyer (2006). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Private equity funds bristle as hedge funds muscle inà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , The Lawyer, London, Feb13, 2006. Pg. 13 Stagecoach (2007). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Proposed return of value of approximately  £700 million to Shareholdersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  (, 14 March 2007. [1] Lloyds TSB LDC (, 6th April 2007 [2] Larsen, P.T. (2007, I). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Private equity bids keep on growingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , Financial Times, 28 May 2007 [3] Larsen, P.T. (2007, I). à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Private equity bids keep on growingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , Financial Times, 28 May 2007